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This photo taken on May 11, 2022 shows Shivaram, a villager walking on the cracked bottom of a dried up pond on a hot summer day in Bandai village, Pali district. – In the Indian desert state of Rajasthan, dozens of villagers, mostly women and children, carry blue plastic jerrycans and metal pots every day to deliver precious water to people suffering from heat waves. waiting for a special train with
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Scientists in Africa, Asia and South America have raised $900,000 in new funding to study the effects of reflecting sunlight to cool the planet and mitigate the effects of global warming.the source of the money open philanthropya primarily funded venture Billionaire Dustin Moskovitzco-founder Facebook and Asanaand his wife, Karitsuna.
The reflection of sunlight releases high atmospheric sulfur dioxide-like aerosols that reflect the sun’s rays back into space, temporarily mitigating global warming. (This is sometimes called solar radiation modification or solar geoengineering.)
The idea has been around for decades, but as the impacts of climate change become more apparent, the idea is being taken more seriously. Volcanic eruptions have proven this technology to be effective, but there are also significant risks, such as damage to the ozone layer, rain leaks and increased respiratory illness.
On Tuesday, non-profit research institutes degree initiative and of the United Nations World Academy of Sciences announced that it would distribute more than $900,000 to scientists in Africa, Asia and South America to study changes in solar radiation in a program called . “Degree Modeling Fund”. The degree initiative has received funding from various donors over the years, the largest being open philanthropy All of the $900,000 payments announced Tuesday came from the co-founder group. Andy Parker told CNBC.
The funding will go to 81 scientists in Benin, Brazil, Cameroon, Chile, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mali, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa, Thailand and Uganda to work on 15 solar geoengineering modeling projects. I’m in.
The lesser of two bad choices similar to chemotherapy
The reflection of sunlight is getting more attention as scientists begin to suggest that its ill effects may not be as bad as future harm from climate change.The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy coordinating a five-year program of research on solar geoengineering, and in January, Quarterly Montreal Protocol Evaluation Report Sponsored by the United Nations For the first time ever, it included an entire chapter dealing with stratospheric aerosol injection.
“Like any sensible person, when I first heard the idea of blocking the sun, I thought it was a terrible idea. It’s a horrible idea,” Parker told CNBC. “But if we don’t cut our emissions sufficiently, it may prove to be less terrifying than if we don’t use it and temperatures continue to rise.”
Reflecting sunlight is not the solution to climate change or global warming. This is a relatively quick and inexpensive way to temporarily cool the Earth. We know it works: 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.the average global temperature is about 1 degree Fahrenheit lower, According to NASAReleasing sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere from a modified aircraft would essentially mimic the way volcanoes release large amounts of aerosols into the atmosphere.
“It’s not a fun idea. It’s not fun to work on. But it’s potentially important, it can be very, very helpful, and it can be disastrous,” Stone said. told CNBC.
“I liken this decision to chemotherapy. Chemotherapy to treat cancer is also a terrible idea. It’s very dangerous. It’s uncomfortable. It’s dangerous. And the other way is worse.” No one thinks about it unless they’re afraid of solar geoengineering,” Stone said.
Before starting your degree initiative, stone led the production of 98-page report on geoengineering from the Royal Society, independent academy of science He holds a PhD in England and has done research at Harvard University and the Potsdam Institute for Advanced Sustainability.
On June 12, 1991, about 20 kilometers above Mount Pinatubo, a huge volcanic mushroom cloud exploded over the nearly empty US Clark Air Force Base, followed by an even more powerful explosion. The June 15, 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was his second largest volcanic eruption in the 20th century.
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One of Stone’s goals with the Degrees Initiative is to enable scientists from developing countries in the Southern Hemisphere to participate in the international conversation about sunlight reflection, he told CNBC.
“If we can do a good job of mitigating the impacts of climate change, then we’re on the front lines of global warming, so we can reap the greatest benefits.” Developing countries would lose the most if they had serious side effects, or if they were prematurely dismissed when they could have been helpful.”
But without charitable donations, research and decisions about solar geoengineering will be largely relegated to regions of the world that can afford to do so, such as North America, the European Union and Japan, Stone said. said.
The $900,000 announced Tuesday is the second round of funding of its kind. In 2018, The Degrees Modeling Fund distributed his $900,000 to 11 projects in Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Indonesia, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, the Philippines, and South Africa.
Stone told CNBC that the funds will be used for grants of up to $75,000, of which $60,000 will be for salaries and $15,000 for tools needed by local research teams. Each scientific team should put forward its own proposal in the grant application, Stone said. But at a high level, each team’s task is to use computer models to predict local weather and its effects, both with and without reflected sunlight.
“By comparing the two, we can begin to generate evidence for how changes in solar radiation can affect things of local importance.
Scientists funded by The Degrees Modeling Fund at a recent research planning workshop for old and new teams in Istanbul.
Photo courtesy of Andy Stone, CEO of The Degrees Initiative.
Prof. Ines Camiloni The University of Buenos Aires has received two degree initiative grants and is also funded by the Argentine government. With the funding, Camilloni told her CNBC that changes in solar radiation are the fifth largest body of water in the world, which covers parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. She told CNBC that she’s researching how it affects the water climate.
“Most of the economic activities in the basin depend on the availability of water, such as agriculture, river navigability, and hydroelectric power generation, so changes in the water cycle in the basin can have a significant impact on the economies of countries. There is,” Camilloni said. CNBC.
Professor Inés Camilloni speaking at the 2022 Paris Peace Forum.
Photo courtesy of The Degrees Initiative
According to Camilloni, previous research has shown that while sunlight reflections can be helpful in some parts of the La Plata Basin region, they can be particularly detrimental to others. increase. Larger rivers that power hydroelectric dams could see higher flows and increased energy production, balanced by more flood risk.
In Buenos Aires, the awareness of sunlight reflections has grown in recent years, fueling strong emotions.
“The range of emotions that altering solar radiation creates ranges from disbelief to fear. Everyone perceives it as controversial,” Camilloni told CNBC.
Clear communication is important. Because even the research advocates don’t see climate change as a silver bullet.
Stone told CNBC, “This is no one’s plan A for how to address climate risk. Whatever happens, we have to cut emissions.” People are finally starting to get serious about this issue: What will we do if not enough emission reductions turn out to be insufficient to avoid a very dangerous climate change? What are our options? And people are sorry, but inevitably we need to think about things like modifying solar radiation.”